Tuesday, 23 October 2012

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences

Student’s strengths are catered for when linking the multiple intelligence theory and differing levels of Vygotsky’s ZPD in guided and discovery teaching to assist students to learn. Combining these theories assists students to develop schemas and learn to transfer information as well as perfecting various skills and talents they possess (edutopia 1997). Gardner first discusses the seven intelligences in Frames of Mind, his first full-length statement about his multiple intelligence theory in 1983. Gardener names his seven multiple intelligences as: Linguistic, Mathematical and Logical, Visual and Spatial, Bodily Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal and Music. In the later years of his career, due to research and great consideration Gardner revised his seven intelligences. With reflection by Gardner there appeared to be three particular potential possibilities: a naturalist intelligence, a spiritual intelligence and an existential intelligence (Scherer, M. 1999). He concluded that the naturalist intelligence merited being added to the list of intelligences (Gardner, 1986). With the spiritual intelligence Gardener came across difficulties settling on the 'content' of spiritual intelligence.  The unsupported claims with regard to truth value, 'and the need for it to be partially identified through its effect on other people’ (Gardner.1999). The final, revised candidate is the moral intelligence. In his research, Gardner began by asking whether it is possible to define the 'moral domain'. He suggests that it is difficult to come to any agreed upon definition.

The key principles of the MI theory are; Pluralisation: That it is important to accept that intelligence is beyond logical-mathematical and linguistic but is often an individualised blend of dominant and submissive intelligences that make each of us suited to particular vocations or interests. Contextualisation: Intelligent behaviour performs better where the context is familiar and meaningful to the student and Distribution: The IM theory is linked to the Vygotskian theory where the interactions with significant others aids our intellectual functioning. (Vialle et. Al 2008, pp.133)

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Edutopia 1997, Big Thinkers: Howard Gardner on Multiple Intelligences, last accessed 24/08/2010, http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-howard-gardner-video
Gardner, E. H 1983, Frames Of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, 10th edn., pp. xxiv, Basic Books, New York, USA
Gardner, H., & Hatch, T. 1989. Multiple intelligences go to school: Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, Volume 18, Pn. 4-9.
Gardner, Howard.1999. The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts And Standardized Tests, The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves, New York: Simon and Schuster.
Scherer, M. 1999 'The Understanding Pathway: A Conversation with Howard Gardner', Educational Leadership 57(3)
Vialle, W., Lysaght, P. & Verenikina, I. 2008 Handbook on Child Development 2E, Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Vialle, W. 2010, Multiple Intelligences and Effective Learning, Lecture notes, EDFE202, 24 August, 2010. Faculty of Education, UOW

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